Liver cirrhosis (LC) is the end stage of chronic liver disease and is very difficult to treat. It is caused by replacement of liver cells by fibrosis. These changes lead to loss of liver function. Liver transplantation is the only effective therapies available to such patients. However, serious problems are associated with liver transplantation: lack of donors, surgical complications, rejection, and high cost. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their multi-lineage potential, immunosuppressive activities, limited immunogenicity and relative ease of growth in culture, have attracted attentions for clinical use.
Stem cell offers the potential benefits when transplanted into liver cirrhosis.
1. Stem cell can differentiate or regenerate into hepatocyte cells so recover the damaged hepatocytes cells in the liver cirrhosis.
2. Stem cell transplant also provide new vascularization so it provides good environment for the renewal, differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes.
3. Stem cell provides immune-regulatory properties by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines so stop inflammation and slow down or stop further deterioration of hepatocytes cells.