Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease due to unknown reason that causes chronic inflammation of the joints, the tissue around the joints, as well as other organs in the body. It is a chronic joint disease that damages the joints of the body. RA can occur at any age, but is more common in middle age. Infection, genes and hormone changes may also be linked to the disease. Currently, RA is treated with immune suppressive agents such as steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, and gold. Despite inducing temporary improvement, these approaches possess long-term adverse effects due to non-specific inhibition of immune responses. Stem cell therapy is another most effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis because Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are capable of induce healing activity with various forms of arthritis.
Besides healing activity of damaged tissues in RA related patients, stem cells provide immunomodulation (to shut off pathological responses) and also start producing anti-inflammatory cytokines to stop the immune attack on synovial fluid of joints.MSCs possess suppressive capabilities to control several subsets of immune cells, the most important being their inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation and dendritic cell differentiation, considered the principal key factors for activating autoimmune disorders. MSCs are also effective for inhibiting proliferation of helper T-cell, killer T-cell, as well as memory and naive T cells. Due to MSC immunomodulation property, inflammation around the whole joints are alleviate.